A review of Eupbydryas iduna
(DALMAN, 1816)
with descriptions of new taxa
(Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae)
The subspecific structure of Euphydryas iduna (DALMAN, 1816) is reviewed. All taxa belonging to this species are discussed together with a detailed analysis of male genitalia. Two new subspecies are described: E. iduna gorodinskii ssp. n. (TL: Russia, Kamchatka) and E. iduna eremita ssp. n. (TL: South Mongolia, Gobi-Altai Airnak, 30 km South fr. Biger somon). The lectotype of E. iduna sajana HIGGINS, 1950 is designated.

Euphydryas iduna gorodinskii ssp. nova

Holotype: male, Kamchatka, Bystrinskyi distr., Esso v., Uksichan R.
1200m, 3-10.07.2002, PATRIKEEV V. leg.
Paratypes: 14 males, 10 females, same data.

Colour plates VI, VII: 6 and 12.

Description and diagnosis

The material from Kamchatka is very rare in collections and was not mentioned in old Russian faunistic papers. The first record was published by A. KURENTSOV (1970), as Euphydryas cynthia (!!). Seven specimens were examined by K. SEDYKH (1979) who noted that it belongs to E. iduna and based this on the opinion of Yu. KORSHUNOV. The mistake of KURENTSOV was very important, in our opinion, and was based on the real characteristics of the butterflies which looks different from the typical iduna and recall cyntia (in the case one knows the characters of this species but has no actual specimens). The opinion of KURENTSOV was firstly based on the material from Kamchatka, and only later he united it with 2-3 specimens from other parts of the areal of iduna without serious comparison; this resulted in the general confusion of iduna and cynthia in Siberia.
Male. FW length is 18.3 mm in the holotype, 17-19 mm in the paratypes. This is a relatively large butterfly, statistically even larger than iduna f. alferakyi. The general appearance of the butterflies is the same as in the typical iduna, the wings are slightly widened as in f. alferakyi, but other characters are as in the ssp. eremita : the whitish bands are widened and bright, the dark postdiscal series reduced, yellowish tinge is absent (real eremita is a very small, fragile and pale butterfly with narrowed wings, z. e. has a quite different general appearance). Thus, in some characteristics this subspecies recalls the modification sajana a result of the hybridization of iduna and eremita, but the size is larger, the whitish bands conspicuously more developed; in addition, the reddish colour of the bands has no orange-yellowish tinge, these bands clearly being narrower than in the sajana- specimens; the reddish band on the HW upperside consists of a series of oval spots widely separated by dark suffusion across the veins. All mentioned characters are absolutely suitable for the compari- sion of the new subspecies with the f. alferakyi, this is correct because we have stated that this form as well as sajana represents only a variation of the nominotypical subspecies. The underside is more special, with very reduced reddish basal spots on the HW, which cover only a small part of the basal area; the white postdiscal band is at least 1.5 times (usually twice) wider than the reddish submarginal band. The reddish marginal band is distinctly narrower than in all forms of the ssp. iduna. The underside of FW without traces of dark suffusion or dark spots in the postdiscal area. The reduction of the basal spots once again recals eremita, while the contrasting borders of the bands are clearly similar to the characters of alferakyi. The characters of the genitalia was discussed above and has important differences from those of the nominotypical subspecies in the structure of the dorsal and even ventral processes of the valva.
Female. FW length 21.5-23 mm. All main characters as in the males, except the white colour is more developed.
Distribution and taxonomic notes. Known only from the type locality and represents a one more endemic of Kamchatka, together with Papilio machaon kamtschadalus ALPH. and Erebia anyuica argentea CHURKIN (in press). Noteworthy, that the characters of iduna f. alferakyi are very constant throughout the area from Putorana Plateau to Chukotka, z. e. within several thousand kilometers, while the distance between the type locality of the new subspecies and the known distribution area of alferakyi is not great. It means, that in all cases the intergradation zone must be very narrow.
Biology. The collecting habitat was a mountain tundra; the butterflies where collected together with Boloria alaskensis HOLLAND and Clossiana butleri EDWARDS.
Etymology. The subspecies is named after Andrei A. GORODINSKI (Moscow), an entomologist, who provided the authors with very rare material from Kamchatka.
The number of review: 4410